Archive for 十一月, 2015

溶解木质纤维素生物质以促进其水解 陈敬妹

星期四, 十一月 19th, 2015

近日,方真研究员应 “生物燃料,生物制品和生物炼制”(他担任该刊顾问编委) 邀请,为该刊关于生物能源技术发展撰写社论。方真研究员建议设计并找到一种新的廉价和绿色的溶剂,在温和的条件下,溶解木质纤维素生物质,在均相的条件下进行生物炼制。

全球每年生物质生产量相当于8倍的世界能源消耗。大部分生物质是以木质纤维素的形式存在,含有75%的单糖(例如,木材和草:50%的纤维素和25%半纤维素)。问题的关键是如何释放这些丰富的生物聚合物成为水溶性糖,它们可很容易随后再转化为乙醇,脂类,其他生物燃料,各种化学品,食品和药品。

通常,有三种典型的方法水解木质纤维素为可发酵糖:(ⅰ)预处理后,在低温下酶解(例如,50摄氏度);(ⅱ)在温和的温度下催化水解(例如,180摄氏度),和(iii)在高温近临界点下,快速水解(如350摄氏度)。溶解生物质以形成均相“生物质溶液”对于水解和预处理是非常重要的。溶解后的“生物质溶液”可像液态石油(而不是固体煤)一样,很容易加工,并可实际用于流动反应装置来提高生产效率。有机溶剂(例如,γ戊内酯,γ-valerolactone),离子液体和超临界流体均可以溶解生物质来水解。

生物质溶解后,这三种水解方法可以进一步改进以提高实际用途:(ⅰ)酶水解:酶,水和生物质分子可在一个均相条件下完全水解,不需要预处理步骤。然而,应考虑在工业生产中,如何回收酶,保持其较高的活性和降低成本。 (ii)催化水解:水解过程可用于流动反应装置以提高生产效率。与此同时,固体催化剂可替代液体酸,这样更绿色和环保。然而,固体催化剂的稳定性和活性需要进一步研究。 (iii)快速水解技术:尽管其效率高,但是,由于水解条件苛刻(如高温高压),工程问题(如反应器设计,材料和连续操作)等将成为障碍其商业化的关键。

1、Zhen Fang*, How Can We Best Solubilize Lignocellulosic Biomass for Hydrolysis? Biofuels Bioproducts and Biorefining, 9, 621–622 (2015) (invited editorial).

 

Solubilization of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Hydrolysis

 

By Jing-Mei Chen

 

Recently, Prof. Zhen Fang was invited to write an Editorial in “Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining” (He is also serving as advisory editorial board member for this Journal). He suggested to design and find a green and inexpensive solvent to solubilize lignocellulosic biomass at mild conditions for novel biorefineries.

Annual global biomass production is equivalent to 8 times the world’s energy consumption. Most of biomass is in lignocellulosic form that contains 75% sugar units (e.g., wood and grass plants: 50% cellulose and 25% hemi-cellulose). The key is how to release these abundant biopolymers to become water-soluble sugars that are easily subsequently converted into ethanol, lipids, other bio-fuels, various chemicals, foods, and medicines. There are three typical methods to hydrolyze lignocelluloses to sugars.

Typically, the three ways are used for hydrolysis: (i) enzymatic hydrolysis after pretreatment at low temperatures (e.g., 50 oC), (ii) catalytic hydrolysis at mild temperatures (e.g., 180 oC), and (iii) fast hydrolysis at high temperatures near critical point (e.g., 350 oC). It is very important to solubilize biomass to form a homogenous phase for hydrolysis and pretreatment. The homogenous biomass solution (like petroleum not solid coal) is also easily processed in a flow system for practical applications. Organic solvents (e.g., γ-valerolactone), ionic liquids and supercritical fluids can dissolve actual biomass for hydrolysis.

After biomass solubilization, the three hydrolysis methods can be further improved for practical uses: (i) for enzymatic hydrolysis; enzymes, water and biomass molecules mix well in a homogenous phase for complete hydrolysis, pretreatment step is not required. However, how to recycle enzymes, keep high activity and reduce their cost should be considered for industrial production. (ii) For catalytic hydrolysis; a flow process can be built up to increase production efficiency. At the same time, solid catalysts may replace liquid acids for a green process. However, their stability and activity need study further. (iii) For fast hydrolysis; even though its high efficiency, however, owing to severe conditions (high temperature and pressure), engineering issues (such as reactor design, materials and continuous operation) become key obstacle to commercialize it.

1、Zhen Fang*, How Can We Best Solubilize Lignocellulosic Biomass for Hydrolysis? Biofuels Bioproducts and Biorefining, 9, 621–622 (2015) (invited editorial).

 

image001

Cellulose completely dissolves in an ionic liquid for hydrolysis or pretreatment

纤维素完全溶解在离子液体中行水解或预处

生物能源组参加首届云南生物质能源发展论坛

星期二, 十一月 3rd, 2015

首届云南生物质能源发展论坛暨云南省能源研究会成立三十周年大会于2015年10月24至25日在云南昆明,西南林业大学召开。来自云南省发展和改革委员会、云南省工业和信息化委员会、云南大学、云南师范大学和中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园等30多个单位的160余位专家、学者及企业界人士出席了会议。

本次论坛主题为“云南生物质能源的发展与创新”,云南省能源研究会副理事长/秘书长、材料工程学院郑志锋院长主持了开幕式,中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园方真研究员被论坛邀请主持了24日下午学术会议。张帆助理研究员以“高效合成生物柴油绿色工艺研究进展”为题目做了学术报告,向大家汇报了近年来国内外高效合成生物柴油绿色工艺的研究状况,生物能源组在生物能源领域取得的成绩以及张帆本人在高效合成生物柴油绿色工艺研究过程中获得的一些收获和近期在Applied Energy、Energy、Fuel和Bioresource Technology等国际能源期刊上发表的研究成果。感谢中科院热带植物资源可持续利用重点实验室、中科院“一三五”课题(XTBG-T02)和国家自然科学基金青年项目(No. 31400518)的鼓励和支持。

 

Prof. Zhen Fang and Mr. Fan Zhang attended “First Yunnan Biomass Energy Development Forum”

By Fan Zhang

 

The First Yunnan Biomass Energy Development Forum, or the Yunnan Provincial Energy Society 30 year Anniversary was held at Southwest Forestry University in Kunming, Yunnan on October 24-25, 2015.

More than 160 delegates from 30 governmental agencies, institutions and industries such as Yunnan Development and Reform Commission, Yunnan Provincial Industry & Information Technology Commission, Yunnan University, Yunnan Normal University and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden attended the meeting.

The theme of this forum is “the Development and Innovation of Biomass Energy in Yunnan”, the Dean of Material Engineering College, Prof. Zhifeng Zheng (deputy director/secretary general of Yunnan Energy Research Association) presided over the opening ceremony. Prof. Zhen Fang from Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (CAS) was invited to preside over the academic meeting. Mr. Fan Zhang has given a talk on “Research Progress of High Efficiency Synthetic Biodiesel with Green Technology”. He introduced research status of high efficiency synthetic biodiesel with green technology in China and abroad in recent years, achievements in the field of bio-energy in Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden and also his recent research results published in the Applied Energy, Energy, Fuel and Bioresource Technology. His work was got financial supports from Chinese Academy of Sciences [Key Laboratory of Tropical Plant Resources and Sustainable Use and CAS 135 program (XTBG-T02)] and the Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31400518).

image001

图为首届云南生物质能源发展论坛暨云南省能源研究会成立三十周年大会现场

A new Springer book “Production of Hydrogen from Renewable Resources” was published

星期二, 十一月 3rd, 2015

Recently, Springer has published a book entitled “Production of Hydrogen from Renewable Resources” edited by Profs. Zhen Fang, Richard L. Smith Jr.,Xinhua Qi, Springer, Hardcover ISBN 978-94-017-7329-4, 368 pages, 2015. (http://www.springer.com/cn/book/9789401773294).

As a clean energy carrier with high energy capacity, hydrogen has the potential to supplement or replace traditional fossil fuels in the near future. The use of renewable biomass resources for hydrogen production is receiving a lot of attention as a innovative and robust processes continue to demonstrate hydrogen production from many types of biomass substrates. The present text provides state-of-the-art reviews, current research and prospects of producing hydrogen by fermentation, electrochemical, bioelectrochemical, gasification, pyrolysis and solar techniques from many possible biomass resources.  Hydrogen separation, storage and applications are also covered.

This book contains 12 chapters contributed by leading experts in the field. The text is arranged into four key areas:

Part I: Bioconversion (Chapters 1-3)

Part II: Thermoconversion (Chapters 4-7)

Part III: Electrochemical and Solar Conversions (Chapters 8-10)

Part IV: Separations and Applications with Fuel Cells (Chapters 11-12)

This book reviews current research and prospects of producing hydrogen by bio, thermal and electrochemical methods. Hydrogen separation, storage and applications are also covered. The text should be of interest to students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in the areas of energy, environmental and chemical sciences, engineering, resource development, biomass processing, sustainability and the hydrogen economy.

This book is the fifth book of the Springer series entitled, “Biofuels and Biorefineries” (Prof. Zhen Fang is serving as editor-in-Chief), and the twelfth English book published by Prof. Zhen Fang since 2009.

 

斯普林格新书《可再生资源制氢》出版

陈敬妹

由方真研究员、Richard L. Smith Jr.和Xinhua Qi教授主编的新书Production of Hydrogen from Renewable Resources,最近由斯普林格公司出版发行。(精装,368页,ISBN 978-94-017-7329-4, (http://www.springer.com/cn/book/9789401773294,2015)。

作为具有高能量的清洁能源载体,氢具有替代或补充传统的化石燃料的潜力。利用可再生的生物质资源生产氢气得到了极大的关注。本书回顾了最新的研究成果,以及生物、热化学和电化学方法制氢的前景,包括氢分离、存储和应用技术。该书对在能源、环境和化学科学、工程、资源开发、生物质处理、可持续性和氢经济领域感兴趣的学生、研究人员、学者和实业家有很大的参考价值。

本书包含12章,由来自世界各地该领域的顶尖专家撰写。该书包括四个关键领域:第一部分:生物转化(第1-3章);第二部分:热化学转化(第4-7章);第三部分:电化学和太阳能转换(8-10章),第四部分:分离和应用技术,与燃料电池(11-12章)。

该书是斯普林格系列丛书“生物燃料和生物炼制”( 方真研究员担任该丛书总编辑)出版的第五本专著,也是方真研究员自2009年以来,编著出版的第十二部英语专著。

image001