1.Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic wastes
Fast hydrolysis, low-temperature hydrolysis with catalysts and enzymatic hydrolysis are studied. The sugars produced are biologically converted to biofuels and chemicals (such as bio-hydrogen, ethanol and 2,3 butanediol).
(1) Fast hydrolysis (e.g., 350 oC)
(2) Low-temperature hydrolysis with catalysts (e.g., 150 oC)
(3) Enzymatic hydrolysis (e.g., 50 oC)
2.Synthesis of biodiesel
Heterogeneous nano or magnetic catalysts (such as magnetic carbonaceous acid, calcined/activated hydrotalcite nanoparticles, Na2SiO3@Fe3O4/C, CaFe2O4-Ca2Fe2O5-based catalyst) are produced via different methods (such as co-precipitation, hydrothermal, calcinations, loading).
3.Chemical synthesis of value-added products from lignocellulosic wastes
Value-added products (such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, biochar, acids, furfural, alkyl levulinates and γ-valerolactone (GVL) etc.) are synthesized in green solvents with acid, base and bi-functional heterogeneous catalysts (such as modified zeolites, ZrO2-zeolite hybrids).
4.Biological production of biofuels from hydrolysates and organic wastes
Biofuels and chemicals (such as bio-hydrogen, ethanol, 2,3 butanediol, lipids) are produced via fermentation of hydrolysates and organic wastes.
5.Thermal conversions of biomass and organic wastes
(1) Fast pyrolysis
(2) Slow pyrolysis for biochar production
(3) H2 production from organic wastes
(4) Supercritical water oxidation (SCW oxidation) of toxic organic wastes
6.Hydrothermally solubilize biomass, and subsequently convert it to biofuels and chemicals
7.Nano or micro catalysts synthesis using hydrothermal method or other conventional ways (e.g., precipitation and calcination)
8.Energy planning and policy, Techno-economic analysis